Harry Haynes

Interviewed by: Amber Kestner
Date: Aptil 17, 2007

Amber Kestner reports:

"Harry Haynes is the Manager of the Museum of the Middle Appalachians. This interview took place two days before his birthday on April 7th. When most people talk about him, they usually mention a fact that he has recently told them about or a project that the museum is working on that he is excited about. I will sometimes wait for my grandma to get off of work from the Museum, and if someone happens to come in, Harry is the first person at the door asking him or her questions about where they are from and how they heard about the Museum. I guess that it would surprise many people to know that over half of the people that visit the Museum are from out of state. Harry loves to learn about where these people are from and what they know about Saltville and the surrounding area. He is the best person for the job at the Museum because he is caring and interested in everything. You could say that the knowledge of the area is his life."

Interviewer: What were the first animals to arrive in what is now Saltville?

Haynes: There is no way to know what the first animals were. Saltville became a large, deep lake 30,000 years ago. The lake sediment has created a 30,000-year-old time capsule; therefore the scientists dig down to the ancient bed. They get a look at the animals that were here.

Interviewer: How long after did people emerge?

Haynes: During digs a bone tool has been found and carbon dated 14,500 years B. P. For many years it was thought they entered 1,200 years ago and evidence as been found. They thought they came from Central Europe because the tools looked like they came from Europe. Not Asia.

Interviewer: Did they have a name, like a tribe?

Haynes: We didn't know what they called themselves. Scientists call them Clovis people.

Interviewer: What were the things they did to live off the land?

Haynes: They were hunter-gatherers. They lived off plants and animals that lived here.

Interviewer: Did they give Saltville its name?

Haynes: No

Interviewer: Was Saltville once called something different?

Haynes: Yes, some of the latest research indicates the late woodland Indians, who were the natives called Saltville Maniatique.

Interviewer: Did they map out the area?

Haynes: No.

Interviewer: Did they fight battles on this land?

Haynes: The Spanish Conquistadors visited here in 1567,destroyed the village, and killed the natives.

Interviewer: Did these people arrive in Saltville by chance or did they come because they had heard about the salt?

Haynes: Any source of salt throughout the world has always been exploited by animals and humans.

Interviewer: Did they have battles over salt?

Haynes: We don't know.

Interviewer: Did they use salt for other things besides for flavoring and
preserving meat?

Haynes: Current research indicates that they probably used the salt as a trade item with other Indians.

Interviewer: Were they forced to leave the land?

Haynes: Absolutely, during the 1500's through the entire southeast died as a result of disease introduced by the Europeans.

Interviewer: Did other tribes or groups invade the area?

Haynes: The Europeans Spanish and English eventually moved in here and displaced the Indians.

Interviewer: What exact areas and rivers did they live on or near?

Haynes: The late woodland Indians had at least 20 placated within a 20-mile radius of Saltville on the Clinch River and North, Middle, and South Forks of the Holston River.

Interviewer: How was their means of travel during this time period?

Haynes: By foot or by river - we assume.

Interviewer: Did they raise livestock?

Haynes: No.

Interviewer: What kinds of crops did they raise?

Haynes: Corn, beans, and squash. They are sometimes called the three sisters.

Interviewer: What kinds of housing did they live in?

Haynes: Woodland villages consisted of huts and lodges inside a palacade.

Interviewer: What eventually became of these people?

Haynes: They died during the Trail of Tears. They forcedly removed them from the southeast into the Oklahomas.