|A target can be
punctured by an object larger than about a third of the target thickness.
|Because of the high
speed , the kinetic energy of HVI is very large. An impact of this type would
be more like an explosion.
|As an example, a 1
cm sphere moving at 10 km/s has an impact energy corresponding to the
explosive force of a hand grenade.
transfer during impact can change spacecraft altitude and disrupt formation
|Short circuits in
solar panels can result in a loss of power and cripple a spacecraft.
|Every impact creates
an “impact plasma” which can lead to electrical noise in circuits and
interfere with experiments.
|The impact plasma
can also trigger electrostatic discharge if the space environment had charged
up the spacecraft before hand.