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The chief difference between hand forging and machine forging is that in the latter technique various types of machine-powered hammers or presses are used instead of hand sledges. These machines enable the operator to strike heavy blows with great rapidity and thus to produce forgings of large size and high quality as swiftly as required by modern production-line methods. Another advantage of machine forging is that the heavier the blows struck during forging, the greater the improvement in the quality of metallic structure. Fine-grain size in the forging, which is particularly desirable for maximum impact resistance, is obtained by working the entire piece. With large, hand-forged metal, only the surface is deformed, whereas the machine hammer or press will deform the metal throughout the entire piece.

A special type of machine forging is drop forging, also called impact-die forging. Drop forging consists of placing soft, hot metal between two shaping dies (see Die). The upper one of these dies is hammered, or dropped, on the lower die, forcing the heated metal into the shaped die cavities, as in coin-making operations.
For reducing part of a piece of metal stock to a predetermined size, forging rolls are sometimes employed. These consist of a pair of grooved, cam-shaped rollers through which the metal is passed. The rollers touch each other and work on the metal during only part of each rotation and therefore reduce only part of the stock that is fed to them.
Machine-forging operations are frequently accomplished by use of a series of dies mounted on the same press or hammer. The dies are arranged in sequence so as to form the finished forging in a series of steps. After the piece has been partially formed by one stroke, it is moved to the next die for further shaping on the next stroke.
"Forging," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Introducing the LFS-300 Series
LFS-300 Series ultrasonic inspection machines are intended for efficient and reliable ultrasonic inspection of large, rotary-symmetrical forgings and castings. Using a unique servo-driven part rotating platform (W-axis), forgings are vertically chucked in the machine, permitting full inspection accessibility to all surfaces in one part set-up. Test part sizes
All types of forgings with rotary-symmetric part geometry. Accepts chucked part diameter from 900 to 3200mm (35" to 125"), height to 3000mm (120") and weight to 40 tons. Inspection technique
Contact inspection with water coupling, using transducer bubblers and wear shoes.
The chief difference between hand forging and machine forging is that in the latter technique various types of machine-powered hammers or presses are used instead of hand sledges. These machines enable the operator to strike heavy blows with great rapidity and thus to produce forgings of large size and high quality as swiftly as required by modern production-line methods. Another advantage of machine forging is that the heavier the blows struck during forging, the greater the improvement in the quality of metallic structure. Fine-grain size in the forging, which is particularly desirable for maximum impact resistance, is obtained by working the entire piece. With large, hand-forged metal, only the surface is deformed, whereas the machine hammer or press will deform the metal throughout the entire piece.

A special type of machine forging is drop forging, also called impact-die forging. Drop forging consists of placing soft, hot metal between two shaping dies (see Die). The upper one of these dies is hammered, or dropped, on the lower die, forcing the heated metal into the shaped die cavities, as in coin-making operations.
For reducing part of a piece of metal stock to a predetermined size, forging rolls are sometimes employed. These consist of a pair of grooved, cam-shaped rollers through which the metal is passed. The rollers touch each other and work on the metal during only part of each rotation and therefore reduce only part of the stock that is fed to them.
Machine-forging operations are frequently accomplished by use of a series of dies mounted on the same press or hammer. The dies are arranged in sequence so as to form the finished forging in a series of steps. After the piece has been partially formed by one stroke, it is moved to the next die for further shaping on the next stroke.
"Forging," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Robots can perform these repetitive, high-precision operations 24 hours a day without fatigue. A major user of robots is the automobile industry. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16,000 robots for tasks such as spot welding, painting, machine loading, parts transfer, and assembly. Assembly is one of the fastest growing industrial applications of robotics. It requires higher precision than welding or painting and depends on low-cost sensor systems and powerful inexpensive computers. Robots are used in electronic assembly where they mount microchips on circuit boards.
"Robot," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
CLOSE UP VIEW OF T-193 CHSV SHOWING RETRIEVAL, TRANSFER AND STACKING SYSTEMS
IN THIS VIEW THE CARBON FIBER ARMS ARE SEEN WITH PARTS IN THE RECEIVERS READY FOR TRANSFER TO THE TRANSFER CARRIAGE. THE TRANSFER CARRIAGE IS MOUNTED ON HEAVY DUTY THK LINEAR BEARINGS ABOVE THE CARBON FIBER ARMS. AFTER TWO SHOTS HAVE BEEN RETRIEVED FROM THE ROBOT THE PARTS ARE THEN TRANSFERRED TO THE L-CAM STACKING ARM, SHOWN AT RIGHT. THE SERVO DRIVEN STACKING ARM THEN ROTATES AND LOWERS THE PARTS INTO THEIR STACKS AND IS PROGRAMMED TO STACK UNTIL THE REQUIRED STACK NUMBER HAS BEEN COMPLETED. FINISHED STACKS ARE THEN CONVEYED CLEAR AND FLOW TO THE END OF THE STACKING CONVEYER WHILE NEW STACKS ARE NOW BEING PRODUCED. ALL MOTIONS TO THIS POINT ARE SERVO MOTOR ACTUATED AND CONTROLLED, INCLUDING RETRIEVAL, TRANSFER AND STACKING
After completion of new sewer pipe installation, or after pipe improvement construction.
    - Inspection of sewer pipes of public installations, such as, new city or new industrial estate,
      before take-over or hand-over the public installations.
    - For inspection of old city sewer pipe conditions, especially for doing of basic design
      for the maintenance of each water line's sewer pipe bases.
    - Inspection in a sewage plant for uncertain invasion of surplus sewage waters thru sewer pipes.
    - Inspection of illegal discharge flow of waste waters into sewer pipes from industrial factories, etc.
    - Check out the reasons of city water flooding, breakage of embankments, collapse down of roads.
    - Insepction to see when to start sewer pipes repair working or replacements, etc.
 < TV Inspection Contents >
    - Manhole cover breakage, Manhole connection area breakage, Connection pipe projection,.
    - Corrosion check, pipe breakage & crack, waste water penetration, Mortar, soil accumulation,   
    - Pipe sink, waste oil, curved pipe, other pipe passing, obstacles of water flow, etc
This system is one of non-destructive inspection equipment for the piping structures of
      LNG vessel, Gas line, Refinery & Chemical plant, using mainly CCTV camera.
    - The features of this system is that the interior of pipes can be easily inspected under the
      circumstances that a man can hardly enter, using the remote controlled robot equipment
      and the increase of the quality installation and maintenance can be accomplished effectively.
< Model : TP-100C >
   - High sensitive color camera and new eliminator is mounted on the front
     and the rear of the remote controlled trolley. 
   - Forward/back, left/right moving at the speed of 9 m/min.
   - Passing bulb/Curved pipe and crawling on inclination 35 deg.
   - Unnecessary materials can be sucked by the high power vacuum
     suction device attached.   Air motor type brush is attached to the lifter device fixed
     on the remote controlled Trolley.
   - PAN/Tilt camera is located for working more effectively at the rear side.
   - Forward/back, left/right moving and max. distance 70 m. 
NASA's Viking Mission to Mars was composed of two spacecraft, Viking 1 and Viking 2, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander. The primary mission objectives were to obtain high resolution images of the Martian surface, characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface, and search for evidence of life. Viking 1 was launched on August 20, 1975 and arrived at Mars on June 19, 1976. The first month of orbit was devoted to imaging the surface to find appropriate landing sites for the Viking Landers. On July 20, 1976 the Viking 1 Lander separated from the Orbiter and touched down at Chryse Planitia (22.48° N, 49.97° W planetographic, 1.5 km below the datum (6.1 mbar) elevation). Viking 2 was launched September 9, 1975 and entered Mars orbit on August 7, 1976. The Viking 2 Lander touched down at Utopia Planitia (47.97° N, 225.74° W, 3 km below the datum elevation) on September 3, 1976.
Mars Pathfinder, United States spacecraft that landed on the planet Mars on July 4, 1997. Pathfinder was the first U.S. Mars lander since the Viking probes of the 1970s and the first in a series of small, inexpensive spacecraft scheduled to reach Mars every 26 months until 2005. The lander was a closed container with four triangular sides until it landed on Mars. On the planet's surface it opened up, exposing three solar panels (see Solar Energy), instruments, and a small, wheeled rover called Sojourner. Mars Pathfinder tested technologies for future robotic Mars exploration and explored its Martian surroundings. Pathfinder and Sojourner studied rocks and Martian weather at the landing site in an ancient flood channel called Ares Vallis to gather clues to Mars's geologic and climatic history.
The rover Sojourner had six wheels, a mass of 10 kg (22 lb), and measured 65 cm (26 in) long by 48 cm (19 in) wide and 30 cm (12 in) high. A rectangular solar panel on top provided electricity. The rover carried the Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) device for determining the composition of rocks. APXS aimed radiation in the form of alpha particles (helium atoms with two neutrons and no electrons) at a rock, then measured the radiation (mostly X rays) that bounced back. Different elements react to alpha radiation in different ways, so scientists could determine which elements were present in the rock by analyzing the results.
The Galileo spacecraft, launched in 1989 with the ultimate destination of Jupiter, carried a number of scientific instruments on board to study the solar system while on route to Jupiter, including a radiometer and ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, and near-infrared spectrometers, which take pictures of light outside the visible range. Upon arrival at Jupiter in 1995, Galileo released a probe that plunged into the planet’s fiery atmosphere, transmitting vital scientific data before it was destroyed.
Our vision for the future of medical robots is built around the patient and the medical application. Together with leading pilot-clinics we are working towards bringing this vision to reality for the benefit of patients and surgeons. Competent and quick decisions, a motivated team with in-depth medical and engineering know-how and the absolute focus on the development of mutually beneficial relations with the medical users characterise Universal Robot Systems. Our development is focused on one single goal: The requirements for proven medical and application benefits must be realised in the final product. Therefore, medical and engineering know-how have equal priorities in our development. In terms of ease of use, precision, payload, flexibility, mobility and efficiency we are setting new standards in the field of medical robots. Agility, flexibility and successful development have their roots in independence of thinking and acting. With the URS robot system we can provide the missing component in the cycle from diagnosis, planning, simulation and navigation to therapy by the precise execution of the pre-operative plan.
http://www.medicalrobots.com/urs_en/start.html
Stereotactic brain surgery is a technique for guiding the tip of a probe or other delicate surgical instrument in the brain, through a small burr hole drilled in the skull and without direct view of the surgical site. Minimizing brain damage as the probe travels from the skull to the surgical target deep in the brain requires a straight-lined trajectory that avoids such vital parts of the brain as the major blood vessels and motor strip. A problem inherent to stereotactic procedures is that the surgeon cannot view the surgical site. Therefore. some 3-D localization of the target area is required. The Long Beach Memorial Hospital of Long Beach California initiated an experiment to use a robot to provide localization to the surgeon by interfacing a CT image of the patient's brain to the robot's kinematic equations. The procedure consisted of using a stereotactic frame which is affixed to the patient's head on the CT scanner couch. Three N-shaped locators on this frame are used to provide a reference frame to compute the 3-D location of the target image. A robot bolted to the same CT scanner couch is used to provided the coordinates of the target relative to the stereotactic frame. The surgeon, based on observation of CT images, determines the entry point on the skull. The robot is programmed to align a guide, held by the robot's end-effector, with the target and the entry point. The surgeon then inserts instruments through the guide and the entry point, to a depth calculated by the robot.
Artificial limbs, in one form or other, have been in use from ancient times. In 1885 a specimen was discovered in a tomb at Capua, Italy, along with other relics dating from 300BC. The celebrated artificial hand built in 1509 for the German knight Gõtz von Berlichingen, who was called Gõtz of the Iron Hand, weighed about 1.4 kg (3 lb) and had articulated fingers so constructed as to be able to grasp a sword or lance. The hand is in the Nürnberg Museum and is still in working order. Early in the 19th century a German prosthetist built a hand with fingers that could be flexed or extended without assistance and yet could still close to hold light objects, such as a pen, a handkerchief, or a hat. In 1851 a French prosthetist invented an artificial arm fitted with a wooden hand and attached to a leather socket that fitted the stump firmly. The fingers were half-closed, the thumb pivoted on a pin and could press firmly against the fingertips by a concealed, strong rubber band; the grasp of the thumb could be operated by a mechanism attached to the opposite shoulder. The same inventor devised a leg that reproduced a natural gait and lengthened the stride.
Radioactive materials emit penetrating, ionizing radiation that can injure living tissues. The commonly used unit of radiation dose equivalent in humans is the sievert. (In the United States, rems are still used as a measure of dose equivalent. One rem equals 0.01 sievert.) Each individual in the United States and Canada is exposed to about 0.003 sievert per year from natural background radiation sources. An exposure to an individual of five sieverts is likely to be fatal. A large population exposed to low levels of radiation will experience about one additional cancer for each 10 sieverts total dose equivalent. See Radiation Effects, Biological.
Radiological hazards can arise in most steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radioactive radon gas is a colorless gas produced from the decay of uranium. As a result, radon is a common air pollutant in underground uranium mines. The mining and ore-milling operations leave large amounts of waste material on the ground that still contain small concentrations of uranium. To prevent the release of radioactive radon gas into the air from this uranium waste, these wastes must be stored in waterproof basins and covered with a thick layer of soil.
Uranium enrichment and fuel fabrication plants contain large quantities of three-percent uranium-235, in the form of corrosive gas, uranium hexafluoride, UF6. The radiological hazard, however, is low, and the usual care taken with a valuable material posing a typical chemical hazard suffices to ensure safety.
B2 Reactor Safety Systems  The safety of the power reactor itself has received the greatest attention. In an operating reactor, the fuel elements contain by far the largest fraction of the total radioactive inventory. A number of barriers prevent fission products from leaking into the air  during normal operation. The fuel is clad in corrosion-resistant tubing. The heavy steel walls of the primary coolant system of the PWR form a second barrier. The water coolant itself absorbs some of the biologically important radioactive isotopes such as iodine. The steel and concrete building is a third barrier.
MANFRED is a remotely operated stainless steel manipulator designed specifically for reactor decommissioning. MANFRED is available with a number of tools for tasks such as cutting and material removal. The MANFRED working fluid is compatible with nuclear reactor coolant.